Curso

Disciplina em nível de pós-graduação: “As formas colaborativas de produção e o comum”

Michel Bauwens oferecerá um curso introdutório sobre as formas colaborativas de produção, o p2p production, bem como a produção de riquezas comuns na sociedade. Este curso será destinado, preferencialmente, a estudantes de pós-graduação do Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia e da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. O curso terá a duração de quatro semanas, com carga horária de 48 horas. Serão realizados 3 encontros semanais de 4 horas cada um. O produto final de cada participante será um breve estudo sobre casos de formas colaborativas de produção e de produção do comum no Brasil.

O curso é organizado pelos profs. Clóvis Lima e Ivana Bentes, sendo uma promoção conjunta do IBICT, da ECO/UFRJ e dos Programas de Pós-Graduação em Ciência da Informação/IBICT-UFRJ e em Comunicação/UFRJ. As aulas serão ministradas na língua inglesa. Os alunos do curso receberão certificado de participação.

A organização deste curso tem a colaboração de Kênia Alice, que está realizando estágio docente na ECO/UFRJ.

Local e horário das aulas
Escola de Comunicação da UFRJ
Endereço: Av. Pasteur nº 250 – fds, Urca, Rio de Janeiro.

Aulas: Segunda, Terça e Quinta – 14hs as 17hs.
Datas: 12/11, 13/11, 26/11. 27/11, 29/11, 03/12, 04/12, 06/12, 10/12 e 11/12.

Inscrições confirmadas

Estudantes de Pós-Graduação:

Anne Danielle S. Clinio dos Santos
Bruno de Carvalho Stheling
Carlos José Vieira Martins
Carlos Roberto Calenti Trindade
Cecília Elizabeth B. Soares
Fatima Santana da Silva
Francisco Carlos da Rocha Gomes
Hugo Yukio Fujioka Moguchi
José Carlos Messias S. Franco
Júlia Stadler
Marcia Gonçalves
Marina Pantoja Boechat
Milena De Carvalho Campe
Natália Passos Mazotte Cortez
Wladimir Henriques Motta

Outros interessados:

Andrew Whitworth-Smith
Beatriz Cintra Martins
Beatriz de Carvalho Penna
Bruna Aguiar
Carlos Meijueiro
Jaqueline Rodrigues
Laffayete de S. Alvares Jr.
Marianna Zattar
Martin Draghi
Patrícia Lima
Rafael Polo
Sabrina Borges
Simone do Vale
Vanessa Myho
Victor Mourão

A synthetic overview of the collaborative economy

What follows will be a synthetic mapping and overview of the different manifestations of the emerging collaborative economy. This collaborative economy is the result of the dramatic encounter of two models of organizing the economic and social world. This is the encounter of traditional models, based on scarce resources allocated through corporate hierarchies and market mechanisms, with models resulting from a massive extension of the possibility for peer to peer connectivity and collaboration. These new models, and therefore this encounter, are enabled by the Internet and other networked communication.

At the intersection of their encounter we will find many disruptive innovations, and how the resulting mutual adaptation of the vertical and horizontal logics creates the ‘diagonal’ collaborative economy, where the world of corporations intersects with the world of the now productive human community.

The structure of the study

The aim of this overview is to map the emergence of the collaborative economy.

Part One creates a frame of understanding with some general characteristics of the whole field. In Part Two we look at user innovation dynamics, and how the corporate world has answered their challenge. In Part Three we look at the infrastructures being built such as the crowdsourcing platforms, digital marketplaces, and infrastructures for the mutualization of physical infrastructures (also known as Collaborative Consumption). In Part Four we look at community-centric production ecologies, i.e. the emergence of commons-based peer production, and in Part Five, we look at the distributed infrastructures being built to enable the emergence of new production ecologies that are inspired by this new modality. Part six examines the business models emerging in this field, in particular, ‘open’ business models which do not rely on IP protections.

Throughout the study, we will ask our students to document similar practices in Brazil, and compare the local situation to emergences in the rest of the world.

Table of contents

Part One –When the Vertical meets the Horizontal 6
I. The new horizontality and diagonality 7
II. The Emerging new media logic 8
III. New Conceptualizations of Business Practice 12
IV. New Distributed Production Infrastructures 23
V. Community, Corporate and Mediated Dynamics 26
VI. The Emerging Logic of Open Business Models and Its New Competitive Dynamics 30
VII. A First Categorization of the Collaborative Economy 34
VIII. Understanding the ladder of participation 37

Part Two –Discovering the user as value creator and the emergence of a user-centric ecosystem 41
I. The Evolution of Productive Publics 42
II. The Emergence of Lead Users 46
III. Opening Innovation to the Input of the Crowd 52
IV. The User-Generated Ecosystem 71

Part Three -Infrastructures for ‘sourcing the crowd’ and mutualizing resources 84
I. Crowdsourcing 85
II. The Emergence of Collaborative Consumption 117

Part Four -Beyond corporate open innovation Commons-Oriented Peer Production 140
Introduction 141
I. Defining P2P 136
II. Pure play vs. hybrid peer production 146
III. The dual logic of peer production in a market economy 149
IV. The Characteristics of Peer Production 153
V. Cultural and social penetration of peer production in society 162
VI. Business penetration 164
VII. The Institutional Ecology of Commons-Based Peer Production 166
VIII. Peer Production in Free and Open Source Software 168
IX. Important distinctions amongst the licenses 170
X. FLOSS as a development model 172
XI. FLOSS as business model 177
XII. Peer Production in Design, Hardware, and Manufacturing 180
XIII. Open Hardware as a social movement 190

Part Five -Distributed Access to the Factors of Production 192
Introduction 193
I. The Emergence of an infrastructure for ‘Personal’ Manufacturing 194
II. Distributed workspaces and meeting venues 202
III. The emergence of distributed funding 207
IV. The emergence of infrastructures for “all things distributed” 224
V. Some Conclusions and Speculations 226

Aulas Segunda, Terça e Quinta – 14h às 17hDatas: 12/11, 13/11,  22/11, 26/11. 27/11, 29/11, 03/12, 04/12, 10/12, 11/12. 

Textbook

* Report: A Synthetic Overview of the Collaborative Economy. By Michel
Bauwens, Nicolas Mendoza and Franco Iacomella, et al. Orange Labs and
P2P Foundation, 2012.

URL = http://p2p.coop/files/reports/collaborative-economy-2012.pdf ; \

Summary via http://p2pfoundation.net/Synthetic_Overview_of_the_Collaborative_Economy

More detailed access:

* Introduction,
http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/introduction-to-the-synthetic-overview-of-the-collaborative-economy/2012/10/10

* Table of Contents,
http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/synthetic-overview-of-the-collaborative-economy-table-of-contents/2012/10/12

Chapter 1, When the Vertical Meets the Horizontal,
http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/synthetic-overview-of-the-collaborative-economy-chapter-1-when-the-vertical-meets-the-horizontal/2012/10/15

Chapter 2, The Emergence of a User-centric Ecocystem,
http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/discovering-the-user-as-value-creator-and-the-emergence-of-a-user-centric-ecosystem/2012/10/17

Chapter 3, Infrastructures for Sourcing the crowd and mutualizing idle
resources, http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/infrastructures-for-sourcing-the-crowd-and-mutualizing-idle-resources/2012/10/19

Chapter 4, An introduction to commons-based peer production,
http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/beyond-corporate-open-innovation-commons-oriented-peer-production/2012/10/22

Chapter 5, An introduction to distributed infrastructures for
manufacturing, funding, etc ..,
http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/distributed-access-to-the-factors-of-production/2012/10/24

Chapter 6, An introduction to open business models,
http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/open-business-models/2012/10/26

Appendixes, http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/synthetic-overview-of-the-collaborative-economy-full-appendixes/2012/10/29

Details on the Sessions

Session 1: General Introduction to P2P

Bibliography:

* Report: A Synthetic Overview of the Collaborative Economy. By Michel
Bauwens, Nicolas Mendoza and Franco Iacomella, et al. Orange Labs and
P2P Foundation, 2012.

URL = http://p2p.coop/files/reports/collaborative-economy-2012.pdf ; \

Summary via http://p2pfoundation.net/Synthetic_Overview_of_the_Collaborative_Economy

Assignment:

Read chapter 1 of the Synthetic Review

Cases and examples mentioned in the course:

* Wikispeed, http://p2pfoundation.net/WikiSpeed ; To read:
http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/the-henry-ford-moment-of-physical-peer-production-wikispeeds-xtreme-manufacturing-metholodoly/2012/11/11

* Curto Cafe, https://www.facebook.com/curtocafe
Session 2: The Characteristics of Peer Production

Session 2:

Assignment:

Chapter 4 of the Synthetic Review

Access: Chapter 4, An introduction to commons-based peer production,
http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/beyond-corporate-open-innovation-commons-oriented-peer-production/2012/10/22

Cases and examples mentioned in the course:

* Sensorica, http://p2pfoundation.net/Sensorica

To read:

* What is Sensorica’s Open Value Accounting system really about? –
http://t.co/7psP55tR

More details: http://p2pfoundation.net/Value_Network ;
http://p2pfoundation.net/Open_Value_Network,
http://p2pfoundation.net/Open_Value_Metrics
Session 3 – Characterists of Peer Production, Part 2

Session 3:

Assignment:

– Definitions, ch. 4, pp. 158-159

– Read the following entries in p2pfoundation.net:
http://p2pfoundation.net/Peer_Production ;
http://p2pfoundation.net/Peer_Production_-_Characteristics ;
http://p2pfoundation.net/Peer_Production_Patterns

– Detailed overview of the characteristics:

Anti-Credentialism: refers to the inclusiveness of peer
production. What matters is the ability to carry out a particular
task, not any formal a priori credential ( ≠ credentialism). URL :
http://p2pfoundation.net/Anti-Credentialism
Anti-Rivalry: sharing the created goods does not diminish the
value of the good, but actually enhances it ( ≠ rivalry). ; URL :
http://p2pfoundation.net/Anti-Rivalry
Communal Validation: the quality control is not a ‘a priori’
condition of participation, but a post-hoc control process, usually
community-driven ( ≠ hierarchical control). URL :
http://p2pfoundation.net/Communal_Validation
Distribution of Tasks: there are no roles and jobs to be
performed, only specific tasks to be carried out ( ≠ division of
labor). URL: http://p2pfoundation.net/Distribution_of_Tasks
Equipotentiality: people are judged on the particular aspects of
their being that is involved in the execution of a particular task ( ≠
people ranking). ; http://p2pfoundation.net/Equipotentiality
For Benefit: (Benefit Sharing; Benefit-Driven Production). The
production aims to create use value or ‘benefits’ for its user
community, not profits for shareholders ( ≠ for-profit). URL:
http://p2pfoundation.net/For_Benefit
Forking: the freedom to copy and modify includes the possibility
to take the project into a different direction ( ≠ one authorized
version). ; URL : http://p2pfoundation.net/Forking
Granularity: refers to the effort to create the smallest possible
modules (see Modularity infra), so that the treshold of participation
for carrying out tasks is lowered to the lowest possible extent. URL :
http://p2pfoundation.net/Granularity
Holoptism; transparency is the default state of information about
the project; all additions can be seen and verified and are sourced (
≠ panoptism). URL : http://p2pfoundation.net/Holoptism
Modularity: tasks, products and services are organized as modules,
that fit with other modules in a puzzle that is continuously
re-assembled; anybody can contribute to any module. URL :
http://p2pfoundation.net/Modularity
Negotiated Coordination: conflicts are resolved through an ongoing
and mediated dialogue, not by fiat and top-down decisions ( ≠
centralized and hierarchical decision-making). URL:
http://p2pfoundation.net/Negotiated_Coordination
Permissionlessness: one does not need permission to contribute to
the commons( ≠ permission culture).
Produsage: there is no strict separation between production and
consumption, and users can produce solutions ( ≠ production for
consumption). URL : http://p2pfoundation.net/Produsage
Stigmergy: there is a signalling language that permits system
needs to be broadcast and matched to contributions. URL :
http://p2pfoundation.net/Stigmergy

– Other Key concepts: http://p2pfoundation.net/Circulation_of_the_Common ;

– Alternative definitions:

Eric Raymond: http://p2pfoundation.net/Bazaar_Model
C. Vercelli: http://p2pfoundation.net/Mode_of_Production_of_Intellectual_Commons

– Understanding the role of transaction/communication/coordination costs:

http://p2pfoundation.net/Transaction_Costs ;
http://p2pfoundation.net/Transaction_Costs_Theory ;
http://p2pfoundation.net/Coordination_Costs

Bibliography:

Bauwens, M. (2006). The Political Economy of Peer Production.
Post-Autistic Economics Review (37).  URL:
http://p2pfoundation.net/Political_Economy_of_Peer_Production

Benkler, Yochai (2006). The wealth of the networks. How social
production transforms markets and freedom? Saatavissa:
<www.benkler.org/Benkler_Wealth_Of_Networks.pdf>; More at
http://p2pfoundation.net/Wealth_of_Networks

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